Technical Information

Below is a list of general papers on infrared technology as well as articles on topics that SBIR has presented over the years at the annual SPIE Defense & Security Symposium. Please keep in mind that these papers were written at a specific point in time and are thus not a direct reflection of the current status of a program/product or test application. We have also included a helpful calculator section with many IR related formulas.

FAQ Data Sheets Suggested Links


This applet allows users to simulate standard optic elements (lens, mirror, dielectrics, sources, apertures) and observe the ways that light rays propagate through these elements. The applet is designed to be scripted but may also be used to construct optical systems using buttons and a click and drag metaphor.

Education on IR Technology

IR for Dummies (PDF)
A brief non-technical introduction to infrared radiation, IR imaging systems, testing and evaluation of IR imaging systems, and IR test equipment.

Test System Components (PDF)
Introductory descriptions of the instrument and accessories used to test detectors, focal planes, and infrared imaging systems.

Radiometric Temperature: Concepts and Solutions (PDF)

JCD Publishing
JCD Publishing offers books, software, and consultation for the imaging system professional working with infrared or CCD imaging systems.

SPIE Standard Products Publications

Performance Prediction from EO System Measurements Using IRWindows and NV-IPM 2018 (PDF)
In this paper, SBIR details how IRWindows performs the required measurements for targeting task performance (TTP) evaluation and generates a measured system component for use in NVIPM to predict range performance of an IR imaging system.

Design and Development of the CubeSat Infrared Atmospheric Sounder 2017 ( PDF)
This paper provides an overview of the design and acquisition approach and provides a status of the current development.

Advanced E-O Test Capability for U.S. Army Next-Generation Automatic Test Systems 2015
The Future E-O (FEO) program was established to develop a flexible, modular, automated test capability as part of the Next Generation Automatic Test System (NGATS) program to support the test and diagnostic needs of currently fielded U.S. Army E-O devices. SBIR has designed, fabricated and delivered three prototype FEO units for engineering and logistics evaluation prior to anticipated full-scale production beginning in 2016.

An Alternate Method for Performing MRTD Measurements 2014 (PDF)
The traditional test methodology to perform MRTD is very time intensive, requiring data collection at multiple temperatures and target frequencies. This paper will present an alternate methodology using a controlled blackbody temperature ramp rate.

MIRAGE Dynamic IR Scene Projector Publications

Development of a High-Definition IR LED Scene Projector 2016 (PDF)
To meet the demands of future IRFPA testing, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. is developing an Infrared Light Emitting Diode IRSP system. Design goals of the system include a peak radiance >2.0W/cm2/sr within the 3.0-5.0µm waveband, maximum frame rates >240Hz, and >4million pixels within a form factor supported by pixel pitches ≤32µm. This paper provides an overview of our current phase of development, system design considerations, and future development work.

Achieving Ultra-High Temperatures with a Resistive Emitter Array 2016 (PDF)
Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR) is developing a new infrared scene projector architecture capable of producing both very large format (>1024x1024) resistive emitter arrays and improved emitter pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures.

Thermal Resolution Specification in Infrared Scene Projectors 2015
Infrared scene projectors (IRSPs) are a key part of performing dynamic testing of infrared (IR) imaging systems. Two important properties of an IRSP system are apparent temperature and thermal resolution. Infrared scene projector technology continues to progress, with several systems capable of producing high apparent temperatures currently available or under development. In this paper, we discuss some of the various factors that affect thermal resolution of a scene projector system, and propose some specification guidelines regarding thermal resolution to help better define the real needs of an IR scene projector system.

Development of an Ultra-High Temperature Infrared Scene Projector at SBIR 2015 (PDF)
The rapid development of very-large format IR detector arrays has challenged the IR scene projector community to develop correspondingly larger-format IR emitter arrays to support the testing needs of systems incorporating these detectors. Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) program, SBIR is developing a new IR scene projector capable of producing both very large format (>1024x1024) and improved pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures in excess of 1000K.

Advances in Iterative Non-Uniformity Corection Techniques for Infrared Scene Projectors 2015 (PDF)
SBIR is continually developing improved methods for non-uniformity (NUC) of its IR Scene Projectors as part of its comprehensive effort to achieve the best possible projector performance.

Ultra High Temperature Emitter Pixel Development for Scene Projectors 2014 (PDF)
To meet the needs of high fidelity infrared sensors, under the UHT development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. has developed new infrared emitter materials capable of achieving extremely high temperatures.

Scalable Emitter Array Development for Infrared Scene Projector Systems 2014 (PDF)
Several new technologies have been developed over recent years that make a fundamental change in the scene projection for infrared hardware in the loop test. Array sizes of 2048x2048 and larger are required to meet the high fidelity test needs of today's modern infrared sensors.

A 2-Color 1024x1024 Dynamic Infrared Scene Projection System 2013 (PDF)
This paper discusses the design and testing of a 2-color dynamic scene projector based on our MIRAGE-XL product line. Algorithms derived for 2-color operation are discussed and system performance data is presented, including radiometric performance, sub-pixel spatial co-registration and compensation for spectral cross-talk.

A Hybrid Approach to Non-Uniformity Correction of Large Format Emitter Arrays 2012 (PDF)
This paper discusses a hybrid method to performing a non-uniformity correction on an infrared scene simulator using both a flood measurement and a sparse grid method.

Design Considerations for a High-Temperature, High-Dynamic Range IRSP 2012 (PDF)
This paper reports the results of some initial investigations into the resolution that is required for acceptalbe system performance and the effects of moving to a higher dynamic range may put on existing NUC procedures of a high dynamic range infrared scene projector.

Radical Rise Time Enhancement of a Resistive IRSP Array 2012 (PDF)
This paper expands on a study previously conducted by SBIR to determine the maximum capability of a technique in which the pixel drive of the first frame of a commanded transition is modified to improve transition time in order to support up to 400 hertz frame rates.

Ultra High Temperature Infrared Scene Projector System Development 2012 (PDF)
This paper discusses the current status of the pixel design of the UHT development program and will discus with an emphasis on the models developed to facilitate these designs and estimate performance prior to fabrication.

Enhanced LWIR NUC Using an Uncooled Microbolometer Camera 2011 (PDF)
This paper discusses an alternative approach to utilizing either a cooled MWIR or LWIR camera with a microbolometer camera to perform LWIR Non-Uniformity Correction on an Infrared Scene Projector.

LWIR NUC Using an Uncooled Microbolometer Camera 2010 (PDF)
An overview of the continuing development by SBIR to use a microbolometer camera to perform LWIR NUC on an Infrared Scene Projector (IRSP).

Rise-Time Enhancement Techniques for Resistive Array Infrared Scene Projectors 2009 (PDF)
An overview of SBIR's new rise-time technique termed "overdrive" used for improving the rise-time of emitter pixels.

Performance Improvements in Large Format Resistive Array (LFRA) InfraRed Scene Projectors 2008 (PDF)
This paper will discuss the advances in pixel design, rise time enhancement techniques and also the process by which arrays are annealed.

LFRA: Developments in Large-Format Resistive Arrays & Advanced IRSP System Technologies 2007(PDF)
An overview of SBIR's recently completed LFRA product line: commercially known as the MIRAGE XL. The Mirage XL system includes a 1024x1024 IR emitter array. A brief discussion of WFRA which includes an even larger 1536x768 emitter array.

LFRA: Developments in Large-Format Resistive Arrays & Advanced IRSP System Technologies 2006(PDF)
An overview of SBIR's recently completed LFRA product line: commercially known as the MIRAGE XL. The Mirage XL system includes a 1024x1024 IR emitter array.

OASYS:Cryogenically-Optimized Resistive Arrays & IRSP Subsystems for Space-Background IR Simulation 2006 (PDF)
An OASYS technical system status overview.

MIRAGE: Developments in IRSP Systems 2005 (PDF)
This paper describes the growth and expansion of the MIRAGE family.

MIRAGE Update 2003 (PDF)
Overview of SBIR's new emitter foundry, next-generation 512 x 512 development, updated Calibration Radiometry System (CRS) and NUC implementation.

LFRA 2003 (PDF)
Large Format (1024 x 1024) MIRAGE system development status, including RIIC probe test data and next-generation C&CE components.

LFRA 2002 (PDF)
SBIR is producing a 1,024x1,024 Large Format Resistive Array (LFRA) and supporting IR projector system.

MIRAGE Emitter Improvements & Technology Review 2001 (PDF)
SBIR has attained highly stable emitters with MWIR apparent temperatures of 700k.

MIRAGE System Overview and Status 2001 (PDF)
A MIRAGE technical system overview.

MIRAGE Calibration Radiometry System 2000 (PDF)
SBIR's high speed correction algorithm improves the uniformity of the final infrared image.

MIRAGE Large-format emitter arrays 1024x1024 and 1024x2048 2000 (PDF)
A description of the technical approach and plan to develop a new generation of Large Area Infrared Scene Emitters(LAISE).

MIRAGE System Overview and Status 2000 (PDF)
A MIRAGE technical system overview.

MIRAGE Dynamic IR Scene Projector Overview and Status 1999 (PDF)
A MIRAGE technical system overview.

MIRAGE - Innovations in Infrared Scene Simulator Design 1999 (PDF)
A description of the MIRAGE system, and how it addresses the problems of dynamic scene projection.

MIRAGE read-in-integrated-circuit 1999 (PDF)
This paper describes the test results for the MIRAGE read-in-integrated-circuit (RIIC) designed by Indigo Systems Corporation

Frequently asked questions about the MIRAGE infrared scene projector.